The executive functions are part of a domain-general cognitive system that is essential for the flexibility and regulation of cognition and goal-directed behavior (Best and Miller, 2010) and comprises distinguishable yet interrelated components (Miyake et al., 2000). In this respect, every individual can encounter necessity of acquiring a second language. Green, D. W. (2011). (2017) found that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on a modified flanker task (with no-go trials) but not on the one with less demand on working memory. Working memory span predicted go-RTs in the 80-20 proportion condition, whereas the relationship between SES and go-RTs was not significant. Journal of Cognition and Development, 21, 46–71. IvyPanda. Sociolinguistic and non-language factors were taken as covariates in Study 1 and moderator variables in Study 2 while taking proficiency as an independent measure and performance on go/no-go task as the dependent measure. Language skills and an ability to shape the ideas using a second language mean a lot, especially for children. Therefore, treating bilingualism as a continuous variable can give better or different outcomes by looking at the degree of bilingualism (Bialystok and Barac 2012). Dash, T., & Kar, B. R. (2020). Examination of the interaction plot showed a diminishing effect that with higher L1 proficiency and L1 use in informal setting, error rates on no-go trials (20-80) decrease. This test requires the participants to decide if the string of letters presented one at a time is a word or a non-word in English and respond using the mouse click on ‘yes’ if it is a word or ‘no’ if it is not a word. Macnamara and Conway (2014) claims that the cognitive benefit will be specific to the kind of bilingual management demand exerted by the bilingual processing mechanisms involved. Two studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between language proficiency and inhibitory control by taking second language proficiency as a categorical variable in the first study and by using a correlational design in the second study. Study-1 showed that age of acquisition, language use in formal/informal setting, and bilingual switching influenced the interaction between L2 proficiency and inhibitory control. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(4), 884–899. (2009) found that the significant difference in conflict effect on the 75% congruent (high demanding) condition on the flanker task was present only in the first block but not in the second and third blocks. Sociolinguistic. There are countries that have two or more national languages in order to provide their citizens with freedom in terms of the language to speak. In Indian context, the variation in language use, language organization and interdependence of both languages observed in bilinguals is not very clear. On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest. The validation study (Dash and Kar 2012) for a comprehensive test of language proficiency in Hindi (L1) and English (L2) considered all the factors including self rated proficiency, language use, language exposure, age of acquisition, and objective measures of proficiency across the domains of speaking, understanding, reading and writing. February 11, 2019. Commonly referred to … In this respect, it is necessary to explore the current situation with treatment of bilingu… It would be interesting to learn the statistics of people that have to acquire different languages than their mother tongue for different reasons such as migration, job opportunities, economic and political conditions in the country and the world, and others. Sociolinguistics refers to the relationship between language use and the social world or community in which it surfaces, and particularly, how language functions within and creates social structures; therefore, it is assumed that linguistics has a social dimension. 2013; Verhagen et al. Bialystok, E., & Viswanathan, M. (2009). As reported by Dalby (in Fitzgibbons, 1996, p. 12), bilingualism can be regarded as a way of speaking to a certain group of people who do not belong to the native community. Language background questionnaire, self-switching questionnaire and objective measures such as picture naming, picture description, listening comprehension and LexTALE (English only) were used to examine language proficiency in L1 and L2 (Table I in Appendix). Cognition, 106(1), 59–86. The effect of language proficiency on executive functions in balanced and unbalanced Spanish–English bilinguals. Individual differences in control of language interference in late bilinguals are mainly related to general executive abilities. 389–410). Psychological Research Psychologische Forschung, 77(6), 728–737. IvyPanda. Yang, H., Hartanto, A., & Yang, S. (2016). Further the interaction term was added to the model. Bilingual advantage in executive control when task demands are considered. 2009; Jiao et al. Similarly, exposure duration for L1 was matched whereas exposure for L2 was more among high proficient bilinguals. Procedure of the task (trial structure and mode of response) remained the same as described in Study 1. PubMed Google Scholar. View Bilingualism, Sociolinguistics, Code Switching Research Papers on for free. The mean no-go error rates for the 80-20 proportion (M = 28.540, SD = 14.659) were more than that for the 20-80 proportion (M = 2.455, SD = 2.241) [t(100) = 25.953, p < 0.001]. A new book presents the findings of … Representations and meanings of L1 are connected weakly to L2 but are stronger from L2 to L1 (Green 1998). 4). Raven, J., Raven, J. C., & Court, J. H. (2000). Future research needs to continue to conceptualize bilingual experience as a continuous and multifactorial measure while investigating the interaction between bilingualism and cognitive control. Singh, N., & Mishra, R. K. (2015). Similarly, within group difference between 80-20 proportion and 20-80 proportion was also found in HPBs and LPBs [t(29) = 17.733, p < 0.001]; [t(29) = 23.945, p < 0.001] respectively with higher error rates for the 80-20 proportion. Regression analysis was followed by moderation analysis, which provides an overall context to understand the interaction dynamics of the given variables. The orientation of triangles defining the go versus no-go trials was counterbalanced. Step 4 of the analyses revealed that, controlling for the mediator (L1 use in informal settings), L1 proficiency was a significant predictor of no-go error rates (20-80), b = − 0.130, t(98) = − 4.317, p < 0.001 (see Fig. In addition, factors such as setting-based language use may not simply add up to proficiency rather seem to modulate the interaction between proficiency and cognitive control. 3, pp. Mediation analysis was also performed for the same variables used for the moderation analysis and one out of three models showed significant yet partial mediation. Luk, G., De Sa, E. R. I. C., & Bialystok, E. (2011). Cognitive control and parallel language activation during word recognition in bilinguals. Personal proforma was used to record self-reported socio-economic status (SES), frequency of playing any team sport, and frequency of engaging in any skilled activity (Table 2). Jiao, L., Liu, C., Wang, R., & Chen, B. Romaine, S. (1995). Outlier RTs were removed based on the mean ± 3SD criteria. Trans-Cultural Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition: Understanding the Sociolinguistic Effects of International Tourism on Host Communities Eric Johnson, Arizona State University Abstract: This paper analyzes the nature of linguistic interactions between … Bilingualism can be considered one of the consequences of the globalization. Electrophysiological correlates of anterior cingulate function in a go/no-go task: Effects of response conflict and trial type frequency. Exposure duration to L2, use of L2 in formal and informal settings are significantly greater for HPBs than LPBs, thereby demanding more inhibitory resources when a person is in L2 mode. It facilitates tourism 2. It is believed that language proficiency as a measure of the degree of bilingualism may influence inhibitory control. Understanding the consequences of bilingualism for language processing and cognition. Brain research, 1147, 192–208. (2019). Setting-based use of L1 and L2 leads to varying demands on cognitive control including anticipation, goal-maintenance, conflict monitoring, and inhibition. More specifically, L2 proficiency predicted inhibitory control in a high monitoring condition in terms of proactive control (50-50 proportion of go/no-go trials) whereas L1 proficiency predicted performance irrespective of the demands on inhibitory control. Moreover, some research on complexity of languages can be conducted in order to explore the attempts of people to acquire languages of different language groups. L1 proficiency would emerge as a stronger predictor for inhibitory control compared to L2 proficiency, given the stronger representation of L1. This was important in view of the previous findings related to the relationship between L1 proficiency to domain general cognitive control and L2 proficiency with bilingual language control (Iluz-Cohen and Armon-Lotem 2013; Dash and Kar 2014, 2020). As reported by Sebba (in in Fitzgibbons, 1996), there are many consequences of language contacts such as vocabulary and grammar borrowing, code switching, language convergence, pidginization, creolization, and language mixing (pp. Second language proficiency modulates conflict-monitoring in an oculomotor Stroop task: Evidence from Hindi–English bilinguals. However, L1 use in informal settings diluted the interaction between proficiency and proportion of go/no-go trials. Neuroimage, 205, 116306. Most of the evidence has examined second language proficiency and its effect on cognitive control. The 90 pictures were divided randomly into two blocks with 45 pictures in each. Green, D. W. (1998). Green (1998) postulated that the suppression of one language during the co-activation of languages is carried out by a domain-general attentional system, which inhibits the activation of the irrelevant language within the context. 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