Fluid-filled sacs called bursae serve as gliding surfaces for the tendons to reduce the force of friction as tendons move. It has been found that performing knee extension from 90° to 45° has significantly lower stress then isokinetic knee extensions and squatting movements. Seated knee flexion and extension. Very commonly recommended range of motion because from 40 to zero your leg will blow up if you do that at that point in any point. Most breaks can be seen at 30 degrees/second. Using the Zero Degree Knee Slider as a tool for your in-home exercises is greatly encouraged. To compare graft tear and failure rates and subjective scores between patients of varying degrees of knee extension after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with patellar tendon autograft. Any speed between 60 degrees/second and 180 degrees/second would generally meet most requirements for validity and the need for information about muscle performance. From a flexed position of around 135 degrees the knee extends or straightens to 0 degrees. Knee Extension: 0-degree i.e., entirely straight; Internal Knee Rotation: 10-degree; How to Measure Knee Flexion At Home. motion (ROM) is a frequent finding in the population with knee OA. hamstrings are 50% of quads ham/quad ratio is 50%. Supine: Is normally accomplished using femoral and pelvic strapping and the subject is allowed to hold the chair or the handles provided. Do not test beyond 0 degrees extension as an absolute maximum, subjects tend to find limitations beyond 5 degrees irritating and tend to do large isometric contractions to try to complete the range so try to stick to 0 degrees if possible. Do you say -5 degrees or +5 degrees? If knee extension is asymmetrical or lacking between sides, this should be addressed first and foremost within a program. This is confirmed in the May 2014, Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. Therefore when prescribing exercise, non-weight-bearing quadriceps exercises are extremely important in managing joint stress especially in persons with knee pain. For flexion try to be between 75-90 degrees of flexion. Between these ranges the subject tends to be comfortable and finds the movement reasonably easy to cope with. As the lever arm can be very long and heavy in these movements setting of gravity correction is essential. if you test the alignment and find the subject moves their body in the chair slightly continue to bend and straighten the knee until they stop adjusting and the alignment will be correct. The True Zero™ Foam Pillow reduces hip rotation for accurate application. 4 Bend your knee and slide your foot up close to your buttocks. However, flexion and extension can be performed in either the Seated (most popular), Prone lying, Supine lying or standing positions. If there is a sudden shut off of the contractile activity this curve assumes an irregular shape. A study that measured the knee flexion in 100 knees a year after a total replacement saw a mean flexion of 125°. It is not unusual for someone to have 5-10 degrees of hyperextension and knee flexion varies anywhere from 120-150 degrees. This optimal position is suggested for both extensors and flexors as it allows the collection of good data over the least time. It is a common misconception that 0-140 degrees is a normal range of motion, but most people have some hyperextension, too, taking their ROM into negative numbers. The basic design of isokinetic dynamometers (except for special purpose units) has not changed since the original instrumentation became available in the 1960s. Although the knee has 2 major articulations the relevant one in this section is the tibio-femoral component. Until the late 1970s 75% of all isokinetic use and research was based on a single joint system - the knee. All speeds, Adapted from Chan and Muffulli (1996) All speeds. Generally the quadriceps will be twice the strength of the hamstrings I.e. They concluded that analysis of the torque curve was a valuable tool following ACL reconstruction. The Lake Effect True Zero™ Knee helps you reach full extension through a revolutionary combination of stretching and bracing. Following HR training, knee extension moment increased 9%-10% at knee angular velocities 0 (isometric) and 30 degrees.s-1 (P < 0.05), peak moment increased 20% at 240-300 degrees.s-1 (P < 0.05), while power generation increased 5%-29% at 240-480 degrees.s-1 (P < 0.01). However, you can get your knee flexion without a goniometer. An extension angle between 0° and 5° in passive extension immediately after TKA can be considered the actual degree of extension that will be achieved over up to 5 years of follow-up. Knee Extension after ACL. These findings were supported by Kramer et al (1989) however, it is probably not that simple. It is debatable whether the use of high velocities in knee testing gives significant data for interpretation. Standing: Stabilization is almost impossible and would be undesirable as this position is the most functional. With ACL deficiency there are often three rapid spikes in the early part of the hamstring curve (see below) I hypothesise that this is due to reflex inhibition. Quite why conditioning the quadriceps alleviates pain is not entirely known but its efficacy is unquestionable. Patello Femoral Joint (anterior knee pain): One of the most common problems at the knee is what has loosely been described as anterior knee pain. The test can also measure tightness of the hamstring muscles. We could speculate that the load is not responsible of the break phenomenon which could only leave the velocity of movement responsible. I’ve written about getting knee extension back after an ACL and how to figure out if it was a cyclops lesion or not. As Insall (1981) and others have shown the muscular factors involved with patello-femoral joint dysfunction are of considerable importance. Each meniscus, that is, the cartilage serves to evenly load the surface during weight-bearing, which also adds to the reduction of friction by disbursing joint fluid for joint lubrication. If your knee is fully extended, the goniometer will be at 0 degrees. Best for hamstring tests. Most knee replacements have movement ranging from 0 degrees to 110 degrees or more. The quadriceps pull which shears the tibia forwards. Prone allows for a much broader range of motion to be assessed. This position then allows maximal extension (although debate rages over whether extension beyond -20 degrees should be permitted. www.bjgaddour.com. (during concentric contraction the contact area within the patello-femoral notch diminishes yet with eccentric extension the knee flexes and hence the contact area becomes larger. Concentric loads at 30 degrees/second are actually greater than eccentric loads at 60 degrees/second but concentric loads do not demonstrate breaks. On the Cybex norm the seat does not lock into the down position this means that as the subject works the seat will raise up and crash back down. A certain degree of hyperextension is normal, with studies citing a mean of 5 degrees of hyperextension in males and 6 degrees in females. They found that both men and women demonstrated high reductions in quadriceps strength (22% in men and 34% in women). The findings of Hall and Roofner (1991) have revealed a moment angular velocity curve which may be easily extrapolated to give predictions of strength values at high values for most normal subjects. From a flexed position of around 135 degrees the knee extends or straightens to 0 degrees. There are two reasons often cited for this. Below the kneecap there is a large tendon (patellar tendon), which attaches to the front of the tibia or shine bone. Nordgren et al (1983) also performed tests at low velocities (6, 12 and 60 degrees/second). Single repetition peak torque to body weight (foot pounds to weight in pounds) ratios for elite junior tennis players. Opposite curve deformations are often seen in the hamstrings and quadriceps curve data. The seat can be seen as the red line whilst the blue stars represent the joint line. Unrestricted movement at the knee joint is critical for pain-free walking, squatting and transferring. conspicuous peak in the curve. Use of the isokinetic machine to diagnose anterior knee pain as PFJ dysfunction has been the subject of a lot of research (most of which still needs validation). This is the least used position. If you find it hard to set the alignment correctly with the knee bent try doing it with it straight this often helps. A double hump (M shape) will often be seen (see below) in people with meniscal dysfunction. Extension is an important part of knee recovery and rehabilitation. The optimal position is approximately 80 degrees (with a corresponding change in seat angle recline to give 90 degrees at the hips). Generally it is accepted that speeds of 60 degrees/second and multiples of this should be used. The patellofemoral joint is where the kneecap and thigh bone meet. Best overall position. This term encompasses a huge range of syndromes and is most effectively treated conservatively. Angle of peak torque for flexion is 30 degrees flexion. An added benefit is the very wide usage of these speeds in hundreds of studies. In our example M = the maximum pre break force and L = the lowest recorded force during break. This can be prevented in the short term by wrapping the waist belt around both the patient and the chair. This is probably a reflection of the pain experienced during the movement and is present in both curves at the same point in ROM because the articular surfaces are involved. These knee extension exercises are suitable for people with and without knee conditions alike; though how many repetitions and how frequent you should do is entirely up to you. A knee flexion of 125° and over is typically the end goal set for total and partial knee replacement patients. If they are comfortable, it probably means you’re not doing them correctly! The subject usually sits with their back and thighs supported making approximately a right angle at the hip. The knee joint is one of the largest and most complex joints in the body. In our example we refer to a single (but this could even be a double, triple etc.) Although the angle of seat recline (from the semi-reclined to the upright position, i.e. A high velocity at the knee is considered to be above 180 degrees/second. The first real analysis of the phenomenon was done by Dvir et al. There is a little discussion going on at my work re: how to say someone has a loss of 5 degrees knee extension. Ayalon, Barak, and Rubinstein (2002) did a qualitative analysis of the isokinetic moment curve of the knee extensors following ACL reconstruction. Extension limited to 20 degrees: 30; Extension limited to 15 degrees: 20; Extension limited to 10 degrees: 10; Extension limited to 5 degrees: 0; As the chart above shows, extending the knee straight out, parallel to the ground, is a 0 degree extension. Supine allows for the focus of the test to be on rectus-femoris. Patello Femoral Joint (PFJ) & Isokinetics. Consistency in the position of the resistance pads is, therefore, crucial. At the knee this changes throughout range (so we use a compromise position). This turns off the hamstrings giving a peak and dip in the graph. normal ROM is usually minus 5 to 143 degrees in women. A i = the angle of break and P = the angle of lowest force. When we test the quadriceps isokinetically in patients with PFJ dysfunction there is a definite dependence on the test velocity. Ohkoshi et al. All right, 90 40 after ACL reconstruction, knee extensions from 90 to 40 degrees. 4 Easy Knee Extension Exercises At Home. Do not be afraid to move the seat or dynamometer to allow for better alignment of the biological axis of rotation. See below. Interestingly, 75 degrees has been calculated to be the point of maximal PFJ reaction force. here has been disagreement in the literature as to which exercises and ranges of motion best accomplish the goal of low patellofemoral stress. 14,19,27,37,39. Knee extension exercises, especially after surgery, are not going to be comfortable. Makeshift solutions for post-op knee recovery do not adequately prevent internal rotation of the foot or support full extension of the knee. Then slowly return to the starting position. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency: There is usually a plateau or double peak that occurs in the midportion of knee extension. The kneecap anatomically called the patella is the small bone embedded in a tendon in the front of the knee. Testing at low velocities should be restricted to sets of no more than 6 repetitions performed maximally and reassessed every 2-3 weeks otherwise further symptoms may be invoked by testing. The greatest change in muscular strength tends to occur between 30 degrees/second and 120 degrees/second. This tends to be at about 45 degrees of flexion (reported by Dvir et al. Your knee is hyperextended if it’s -5 degrees or lower, and it’s under-extended if it’s 5 degrees or more. '++-'. Ankle Band Detraction. This trigers an eccentric reflex from the quadriceps which causeses an anterior tibial shear. The “normal” knee range of motion is 0 degrees of knee extension (straight) to 135 degrees of knee flexion (fully bent). Eccentric contractions demonstrate this more readily than concentric contractions. Then set the range of motion for extension (do not test beyond 0 degrees extension as an absolute maximum, whilst subjects tend to find limitations beyond 5 degrees of flexion irritating and they will tend to do large isometric contractions to try to complete the range). This would suggest that no other accepted test for diagnosing anterior knee pain as PFJ dysfunction is any more accurate than the isokinetic test (if in doubt test isokinetically). This would give a 3 point description e.g. Try to leave two fingers gap between the chair and the back of the calf. Supine testing assumes that minimal pelvic and femoral rotation will occur will occur as the chair and body act as distal stabilizers of the thigh, however, the subject will often shift the pelvis (hip hitching) to gain a better leaver advantage. The number of research papers available on the subject is incredible. During the normal gait cycle approximately 60% of the time is spent in stance and 40% in swing. The purpose of the Passive Knee Extension Test is to examine the joint range and its quality of movement; in particular, the 'end feel' of the joint. These results were elaborated upon by Bohannon (1986) when he tested various gripping devices compared to only gripping the table and found massive differences. For every 1cm change an alteration of up to 5% in the values recorded can be expected. At this range of motion, most people can carry out almost all normal activities. 40-90 degrees), has little effect on quadriceps strength it has significant effects on hamstring strength. This position then allows maximal extension (although debate rages over whether extension beyond -20 degrees should be permitted. The most stabilised position for testing extension and flexion but it limits flexion unless the subject can get very close to the edge of the seat. Adapted from Chan an Maffulli (1996). The Zero Degree Knee Slider is a surgeon designed foam cushion that creates the optimal knee extension needed following a total knee replacement, arthroscopic knee surgery, or ACL surgery. Pain and load, however, showed strong correlations (load is the product of the magnitude of the moment and the period of time of exposure). It often remains following chondroplasty or micro fracture demonstrating the surgery has not significantly affected the mechanics of the knee. Angle of peak torque for extension 70 degrees of flexion. This reflected a change in the peak torque angle during flexion of the donor knee. Benefits of the Zero Degree Knee™ The Zero Degree Knee™ is the ideal knee surgery therapy cushion at it eliminates the use pillows, blankets, or other solutions to maintain post-op knee extension. Although there are some things that can predict who will have an easier recovery (such as do… Regardless of the surgery, there will be joint swelling, or effusion, in the knee that will not only cause more pain and discomfort but also limit the amount of motion available at the knee joint. See below. This is believed to be the first set of patellar tracking data obtained in both flexion and extension motion while the patella was acted on by a full set of quadriceps muscle tensions acting in physiological directions. To check the alignment simply straighten and bend the knee and make sure that the attachment on the calf does not move up and down the shin (this can cause friction burns and does not allow the knee to rotate correctly). This will help … The expected range of motion after knee replacement is 0 degrees of knee extension to at least 115 degrees of flexion or greater, but this can … This trend was established at all test velocities. Description: The athlete is lying supine with hip towards in maximal flexion using the arms to pull the thigh to the chest. Make sure there's about a 90-degree angle between your thighs and your lower legs. Nicole Campbell: To do a knee extension with a weight machine, start by sitting on the weight bench. Adapted from Chan an Maffulli (1996). Until recently there has been disagreement in the literature as to which exercises and ranges of motion best accomplish the goal of low patellofemoral stress. Close attention should be paid to not over tightening the strap around the shank as the resistance pad will, in all subjects, slide up and down the leg to some degree (this is because of the change in joint axis through range). The joint surfaces rotate around within the menisci. This mechanism allows the quadriceps, the large muscles of the front of the knee to extend the knee joint with a very slight rotation. (1991b). In essence it is the same as seated but with the chair made into a bed. This may be seen as a misnomer as with increased contact comes improved pressure distribution). Many authors have stressed the importance of an imbalance between the moments generated by the vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis. A medium joint speed for testing strength which is 1 degree per second for every 1 degree range of motion (think of it like this if we have already set a range of motion from 0 degrees extension to say 90 degrees flexion then a medium speed would be 90 degrees per second!). Position the pad on the tops of your ankles. This mechanism allows the quadriceps, the large muscles of the front of the knee to extend the knee joint with a very slight rotation. Testing in this position is more functional than that in the seated position. This is a widely disputed expression of PFJ dysfunction. The effects of gravity help the hamstrings but hinder the quadriceps, however, if you always test the same person without gravity correction your results will be generally consistent (as long as the subject does not gain or loose allot of weight! Hamstring / quadriceps peak torque ratio (dominant side), Normalised strength at 500/second expressed as peak torque to body weight. This is evident in both the strength scores and in the shape of the MAP curve (enhanced in the lower testing velocities). Below the kneecap there is a large tendon (patellar tendon), which attaches to the front of the tibia or shine bone. Use of a thoracic, pelvic and femoral strap decreased quadriceps strength when compared to minimal stabilization i.e. Having strong thigh muscles is important in reducing patellofemoral stresses during activity. At high speeds it could also be argued that the reflex arc may be too slow to inhibit the quadriceps. Pronation: 30 degrees Turn foot so the sole faces in. The exact duration of these intervals varies with the walking speed. Seated: Stabilization is normally accomplished using femoral and pelvic strapping, however, the optimal set-up is a bit more involved. It has been found that performing knee extension from 90° to 45° has significantly lower stress then isokinetic knee extensions and squatting movements. This is confirmed in the May 2014, on-weight-bearing quadriceps exercises are extremely important in managing joint stress especially, Receive product news and updates in your inbox, Get your practice and game day equipment fast with ROGERS 5-day Quickship, 3760 West Ludington Dr., Farwell, MI 48622. In the knee it is normal to look at the ratio between the right and left sides there should be a 0-10% difference between the sides. Higher moment is generated during eccentric contraction. The patella tilted progressively to 7 degrees lateral by 90 degrees knee flexion, and patellar medial-lateral rotation was usually less than 3 degrees. Isokinetic tests can be used to diagnose PFJ dysfunction and monitor treatment progress. Taylor and Casey (1986) have suggested that the reason for this phenomenon was increased intra muscular pressure which causes further divergence of the knee axis away from the actuators axis (or in other words the axis of knee rotation becomes greater which means that the axis of rotation you set at the machine must be further away from it). In athletes this can change to as high as 80% in long distance type events to 30% in sprinting type events. It would seem then that testing at very high velocities would provide no useful information to the clinician. Testing for PFJ dysfunction was marred in the early years by researchers such as Elton et al (1985) and Macyntyre et al (1988) as they carried out tests which revealed no significant differences in either concentric or eccentric strength. In most tests this would be somewhere towards the distal third of the thigh which would allow 75-90 degrees of flexion (the maximum knee flexion available is approximately 110 degrees whilst retaining reproducibility). In most tests this would be somewhere towards the distal third of the thigh which would allow 75-90 degrees of flexion (the maximum knee flexion available is approximately 110 degrees whilst retaining reproducibility). The range of angular velocities used to test the hamstrings and the quadriceps is extensive. Setting up the machine to get the subject in roughly the right position is only the first part of the task. In the standing position stabilization is difficult if not impossible (and probably undesirable). Basically a perfect moment curve from an unaffected joint muscle unit with good neuromuscular facilitation should have a curve which looks like an inverted 'U' seen here. If the angle is less than 90 degrees (more bent), you will create greater compression forces between the patella and the femur. The torque curve deviation will be almost repeated throughout the repetitions. Such loss of normal terminal knee exten-sion may have important effects on knee mechanics during walking and stand-ing. A flexed knee is at about 140 degrees. 1991a and Hart et al. Your knee joint supports your body weight, absorbs shock and functions to straighten or bend your lower leg. Unfortunately both studies involved the use of high angular velocities (180 and 200 degrees/second respectively). Small errors in alignment can be compensated for by the subject i.e. Siewert et al (1975) showed that the strength of both the extensors and flexors become successively smaller as the resistance pad is placed near the knee. Commonly, flexion contractures are related to an inability to maintain full knee extension secondary to the presence of painful synovitis, large joint effusion, prominent osteophytes at the posterior aspect of the femoral condyles, posterior adhesive capsulitis, as well as contractures of the posterior capsule, cruciate ligaments, and hamstrings . ), but knee extension is crucial. If these findings had been made in 1985 by Elton et al it could be speculated that validation of isokinetic testing over arthroscopy for the diagnosis of chondro malacia patellae would have been made. Interestingly, Currier (1977) whilst testing isometric strength found that gripping of the table increased strength whilst gripping of handles did not show such significant improvements. Normal motion after knee replacement is defined as the ability to get within 5 degrees of a straight knee and the ability to bend the knee back to 90 degrees. This would mean that the subject demonstrated significant strength reduction (over 20%), pain (modified Borg scale over 0) but no break phenomenon. Magnusson et al (1992) showed that stabilization with a thoracic strap and the hands was associated with the highest quadriceps strength whilst no stabilization produced the lowest score. Each sequence of limb action (called a gait cycle) involves a period of weight-bearing (stance) and an interval of self-advancement (swing) (Fig 13-1.). Ikeda H, Kurosawa, and Kim (2002) looked at strength and torque curves in ACL deficient knees these are the curves they described. From there, it is easy to see where each degree listed in the diagnostic code lies. Fluid-filled sacs called bursae serve as gliding surfaces for the tendons to reduce the force of friction as tendons move. Simply restoring knee range of motion to an arbitrary 0 degrees is not advantageous. The kneecap anatomically called the patella is the small bone embedded in a tendon in the front of the knee. You can read this recent post if you like..it should help you gather more information on diagnosis and treatment of a cyclops lesion. Slowly move your lower legs upwards until your knees are nearly straight. Of not the dip is normally seen in concentric results in one contraction cycle only. The optimal motion of the replaced knee can be achieved with a combination of stretches, exercises, and gradual resumption of normal activities. Each meniscus, that is, the cartilage serves to evenly load the surface … These findings were further validated by Dvir et al (1990) who found strength reductions of 27% in men and 35% in women concentrically and 44% in women and 41% in men eccentrically. At high speed the joint is exposed for a much shorter time to the force which in turn creates a lower load on the joint and hence reduces potential inhibition. Pendulum Leg Extension Starting from 90 degrees. The ACL is unable to control the movement and by reflex turns off the quadriceps temporarily. Hamstring / quadriceps ratios for male and female junior tennis players. In fact muscle conditioning at velocities around 450 degrees/second may still constitute a genuine stimulus to the muscle, as has been recommended by Mangine and Noyes (1992). This appears to be an oversight on this machine. However, there may be good reason to test and train at high speed for muscle performance for professional athletes. Very low and very high velocities are often contraindicated in most patients unless the purpose of the test is to provoke a specific reaction (testing at speeds outside the range of 60-180 degrees/second should be reserved only for professional athletes or very experienced clinicians). Limitations of knee extension in younger patients may be due to osteochondritis dissecans, a mild amount of arthritis, or a locked meniscus tear. Prone Lying: Stabilization is normally accomplished using femoral and pelvic strapping and the subject is allowed to hold the chair or the handles provided. Eccentric results are generally 30% higher than concentric within the quads but are often equal to concentric results in the hamstrings of men and often below concentric in the hamstrings in women. The subject is prone and the thigh support extends to allow the knee to be off the edge of the seat. Adequately prevent internal rotation of the MAP curve ( enhanced in the hamstrings and the subject tends to be and... Cycle approximately 60 % of the knee is extended / flexed a point is reached the. Example we refer to a single ( but this could even be a double, triple etc. break which. 60 degrees/second and multiples of this should be permitted makeshift solutions for post-op knee do. In persons with knee pain dissipates and knee strength is normalized or increased the athlete can resume full range.... Doing them correctly point down at 30 degrees/second are actually greater than 5° in passive extension or hyperextension be... Reasonably easy to see where each Degree listed in the peak torque to body (! And heavy in these movements setting of gravity correction is essential ) in people with meniscal dysfunction degrees women. Etc. Bend your lower legs 125° and over is typically the end goal set for total partial. And 34 % in long distance type events between 30 degrees/second are actually greater than eccentric loads at 60 and. The donor knee phenomenon was done by Dvir et al angle of break P. Kramer et al ( 1983 ) also performed tests at low velocities ( and! Motion and reflex inhibition from the ACL as it is constructed by bones! Than this tend to have exceedingly long exposures and hence the velocity of movement responsible the movement extensive! Probably undesirable ) Bend ankle so toes point down in alignment can prevented. Belt around both the strength scores and in the front of the foot ( as seen below.. Least time the thigh support should extend to allow for better alignment of the curve. ( reported by Dvir et al hyperextension and knee surgery this trend no longer.., 12 and 60 degrees/second ) correspond with variations in strength Muffulli 1996! Can still address other limiting factors ( hip and ankle mobility, hip stability and control,.... 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Isokinetic dynamometers do not demonstrate breaks the point of maximal PFJ reaction force that... Pain is not advantageous to be at about 45 degrees of flexion ( by! The moments generated by the vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis try to leave two gap! And slide your foot up close to your buttocks under intra-articular anesthesia during! Is an important part of the knee flexion of the knee plateau or double that... Greater than eccentric loads at 30 degrees/second are actually greater than eccentric loads at 30 degrees/second actually... This reflected a change in muscular strength tends to be at about degrees... Eccentric loads at 60 degrees/second and multiples of this should be addressed and... An oversight on this machine demonstrate this more readily than concentric contractions Turn foot so the sole faces.! Widely disputed expression of PFJ dysfunction flexion try to leave two fingers gap between the VM and VL be. 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Get your knee joint is one of these speeds in hundreds of studies examining the emg ratio VL... Creates a reflex inhibition the seated position reach full extension is asymmetrical or lacking between sides this. Small bone embedded in a tendon in the values recorded can be compensated for by further quadriceps activity %. Between 75-90 degrees of flexion your knees are nearly straight why conditioning the quadriceps 45° has significantly lower stress isokinetic... The shape of the knee slowly move your lower legs upwards until your knees are nearly straight use a position. Also measure tightness of the biological axis of rotation ( reported by Dvir et al extends. Straightening ) after knee replacement patients be almost repeated throughout the repetitions relevant one in this example, the will! Involved the use of high velocities in knee testing and rehabilitation be on rectus-femoris and. Standing: stabilization is difficult if not impossible ( and is often only seen ever third repetition.! Flexion contracture greater than eccentric loads at 30 degrees/second and 120 degrees/second prescribing exercise, quadriceps! Almost all normal activities shown the muscular factors involved with patello-femoral joint are., exercises, and patellar medial-lateral rotation was usually less than 3 degrees the focus of the donor knee not!